Calendar of Independence




The centennial of the restoration of independence is an exceptional anniversary for Poles. On November 11, 1918 the Polish state returned to the map of Europe from which it was erased by three annexationist monarchies: Austria, Prussia, and Russia. For 123 years Poles did not renounce their dream of independence and waged the unprecedented struggle for freedom and preservation of their identity. Despite the loss of yet another uprising, Poles managed to protect the most precious thing, the dream of their own state. The fall of the three annexationist states and joint efforts of Poles allowed them to revive the independent Poland.


“Calendar of Independence” takes us closer to that extraordinary time of struggle which was waged not only on battlefields and in the quietness of diplomatic cabinets, but also in the everyday life of common people who manifested their belonging to Poland without thinking of persecution and tried to preserve their own culture at all cost. These efforts lasted much longer than the warfare of the First World War (1914–1918), so the calendar tells about the events starting from the beginning of the war up to 1921, when Polish borders were finalized.


In order to represent this exceptional for Poles time in its entirety, we selected 365 dates that tell about military, social, cultural or moral and ethical events and together depict the complex and eventful road to independence. These events will be linked to specific days but will not be represented in chronological order.


The “Calendar of Independence” project is a part of the celebrations of the “Centennial of the restoration of Polish independence.” It is a result of the collaboration between the Polish Institute in Kyiv and the Polish History Museum. The authors of the selection of dates, pictures and comments that accompany them are two Polish historians, Dr. Hab. Piotr Szlanta and Jan Błachnio.

FEBRUARY 4, 1918

FEBRUARY 4

The Supreme Council of Polish Armed Forces was created on February 4, 1918 in Kyiv at the congress of Polish military officers who were at the time in civil war-torn Russia. The Council was to serve as a political representation of Polish military...

FEBRUARY 3, 1919

FEBRUARY 3

February 3, 1919 was the first day of the Polish-Czech truce established by delegation of the two countries that participated in the peace conference in Paris. In accordance with its provisions, the Czechoslovak army retreated only to the Olza river...

FEBRUARY 2, 1918

FEBRUARY 2

On February 2, 1918 in Lviv there was a meeting of those in favor of restoration of Poland with the help of Austria. The participants supported the idea of offering of the Polish throne to the Austrian emperor Charles I. Students who supported the...

FEBRUARY 1, 1920

FEBRUARY 1

On February 1, 1920 in Cieszyn the conference of the Allied plebiscite commission took place with the participation of Polish and Czech authorities. As a result of its resolutions, Cieszyn Silesia was subordinated to the Commission, and French and...

JANUARY 29, 1919

JANUARY 29

On January 29, 1919 the Polish delegation in the Paris peace conference presented their territorial claims, prepared by Roman Dmowski, to the Council that consisted of heads of governments and foreign ministers of the victor powers. In the West and...

JANUARY 28, 1919

JANUARY 28

On January 28, 1919 the Battle of Skoczów began that lasted several days. Polish commander Franciszek Latinik managed to delay the offensive of much stronger Czechoslovak troops and defend the previously taken positions. Several days earlier, during...

JANUARY 26, 1919

JANUARY 26

On January 26, 1919 elections to the Legislative Sejm were held in the lands controlled by the government in Warsaw, that is in the territory of the former Kingdom of Poland and West Galicia. For the first time in the history of Poland women received...

JANUARY 25, 1918

JANUARY 25

In the second half of January of 1918 there were debates in the Prussian Landtag (the local parliament) about changes in the electoral system. The Nationalistic part of German deputies demanded to limit the number of Polish parliamentarians in the...

JANUARY 24, 1915

JANUARY 24

On the night of January 23 to 24, 1915 four Russian battalions suddenly attacked the village of Rafajłowa (currently Bystrycia) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, which was surrounded by soldiers of Polish Legions. The Russian soldiers started the...

JANUARY 23

JANUARY 23

On January 23 Czechoslovak troops crossed the temporary demarcation line in the Cieszyn Silesia. Their goal was to prevent the elections to the Legislative Sejm that were planned on January 26. The aggressors chose a convenient moment to attack....

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