Calendar of Independence




The centennial of the restoration of independence is an exceptional anniversary for Poles. On November 11, 1918 the Polish state returned to the map of Europe from which it was erased by three annexationist monarchies: Austria, Prussia, and Russia. For 123 years Poles did not renounce their dream of independence and waged the unprecedented struggle for freedom and preservation of their identity. Despite the loss of yet another uprising, Poles managed to protect the most precious thing, the dream of their own state. The fall of the three annexationist states and joint efforts of Poles allowed them to revive the independent Poland.


“Calendar of Independence” takes us closer to that extraordinary time of struggle which was waged not only on battlefields and in the quietness of diplomatic cabinets, but also in the everyday life of common people who manifested their belonging to Poland without thinking of persecution and tried to preserve their own culture at all cost. These efforts lasted much longer than the warfare of the First World War (1914–1918), so the calendar tells about the events starting from the beginning of the war up to 1921, when Polish borders were finalized.


In order to represent this exceptional for Poles time in its entirety, we selected 365 dates that tell about military, social, cultural or moral and ethical events and together depict the complex and eventful road to independence. These events will be linked to specific days but will not be represented in chronological order.


The “Calendar of Independence” project is a part of the celebrations of the “Centennial of the restoration of Polish independence.” It is a result of the collaboration between the Polish Institute in Kyiv and the Polish History Museum. The authors of the selection of dates, pictures and comments that accompany them are two Polish historians, Dr. Hab. Piotr Szlanta and Jan Błachnio.

DECEMBER 11, 1917

DECEMBER 11

On December 11, 1917 in the Ministry of Justice in Vienna representatives of the government, Trade and Financial Chambers and the parliament discussed the extension of the moratorium on the settlement of debts by residents of Galicia. Despite the...

DECEMBER 10, 1920

DECEMBER 10

On December 10, 1920 the Sejm of the Republic of Poland passed the law “On Construction and Maintenance of Public Roads”. The parliament addressed the important issues (from the standpoint of the proper economic development and integration...

DECEMBER 9, 1916

DECEMBER 9

On December 9, 1916 the German occupation administration in Warsaw created the Polish National Credit Fund, which was essentially an emitting bank. The institution was responsible for the emission of Polish marks, which were the legal tender in...

DECEMBER 8, 1919

DECEMBER 8

On December 8, 1919 the Western powers announced that they would allow Poland to create state structures only in the territories to the west of the Bug river. Because of the historic preconditions and strategic vision, the government in Warsaw...

DECEMBER 7, 1918

DECEMBER 7

On December 7, 1918 the Commander-in-chief Józef Piłsudski issued the order about the unity of the Polish Army. It had to be above current political discussions and serve as an example of criminal obedience to the public. The order required...

DECEMBER 6, 1916

DECEMBER 6

On December 6, 1916 the German and Austro-Hungarian governors of the occupied Polish Kingdom created the Provisional State Council with their joint resolution. It had to become the embryo of the Polish parliament and serve as a consultative body of...

DECEMBER 5, 1918

DECEMBER 5

On December 5, 1918 the Chief of State Józef Piłsudski met in Warsaw with the envoy of the Polish National Committee in Paris Stanisław Grabski. Piłsudski agreed that the Committee would represent the Polish nation, not the government, on...

DECEMBER 4, 1918

DECEMBER 4

On December 4, 1918 in Warsaw a session took place which was dedicated to reorganization of structures of the municipal militia, which were being created for several weeks. All that happened because of dissolution of the structures that were created...

DECEMBER 3, 1918

DECEMBER 3

The District Sejm convened in Poznań from December 3 to 5, 1918. It consisted of 1200 deputies, 10% of which were women. The Sejm elected the Supreme People’s Council that consisted of eighty people and had to become the supreme power in Poland...

DECEMBER 2, 1914

DECEMBER 2

On December 2, 1914 the Limany-Lapany operation began, which resulted in Austro-Hungarian and German units driving Russians away from Kraków. During the operation the unit of the Legions that proved itself the most worthy was the one under the...

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