DECEMBER 25, 1916



On December 25, 1916, in his daily order for the Russian Army, its commander-in-chief Czar Nicholas II mentioned the restoration of the free Poland which consisted of three previously divided parts as one of Russia’s military goals. Czar’s declaration was an attempt of Russia to become the initiator of the solution of the Polish issue after the Central powers issued the “Act of November 5th” of 1916.

Figure: An allegory of resurrection of Poland in cooperation with the Entente powers, poster of Bogdan Nowakowski. 1915. Public domain

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