Calendar of Independence




The centennial of the restoration of independence is an exceptional anniversary for Poles. On November 11, 1918 the Polish state returned to the map of Europe from which it was erased by three annexationist monarchies: Austria, Prussia, and Russia. For 123 years Poles did not renounce their dream of independence and waged the unprecedented struggle for freedom and preservation of their identity. Despite the loss of yet another uprising, Poles managed to protect the most precious thing, the dream of their own state. The fall of the three annexationist states and joint efforts of Poles allowed them to revive the independent Poland.


“Calendar of Independence” takes us closer to that extraordinary time of struggle which was waged not only on battlefields and in the quietness of diplomatic cabinets, but also in the everyday life of common people who manifested their belonging to Poland without thinking of persecution and tried to preserve their own culture at all cost. These efforts lasted much longer than the warfare of the First World War (1914–1918), so the calendar tells about the events starting from the beginning of the war up to 1921, when Polish borders were finalized.


In order to represent this exceptional for Poles time in its entirety, we selected 365 dates that tell about military, social, cultural or moral and ethical events and together depict the complex and eventful road to independence. These events will be linked to specific days but will not be represented in chronological order.


The “Calendar of Independence” project is a part of the celebrations of the “Centennial of the restoration of Polish independence.” It is a result of the collaboration between the Polish Institute in Kyiv and the Polish History Museum. The authors of the selection of dates, pictures and comments that accompany them are two Polish historians, Dr. Hab. Piotr Szlanta and Jan Błachnio.

MARCH 15, 1923

MARCH 15

On March 15, 1923, a day after the Council of Ambassadors in Paris had adopted the decision to recognize the eastern border of Poland in accordance to the existing status quo, an additional protocol to the Treaty of Versailles was signed under the...

MARCH 14, 1918

MARCH 14

On March 14, 1918 the staff of the First Polish Corps in Bobruysk tendered an oath of loyalty to the Regency Council. It was an attempt to avoid the demobilization demanded by Germans. In February 1918 during the last German offensive in the Eastern...

MARCH 13, 1919

MARCH 13

On March 13, 1919 Major General Wacław Iwaszkiewicz-Rudoszański was suspended from command of the Lithuanian-Belorussian division. It was caused by his excessive independence in carrying forward the advanced that contradicted the intentions of the...

MARCH 12, 1919

MARCH 12

On March 12, 1919 military authorities of Zagłębie Dąbrowskie (Dabrowa Coal Basin) prohibited street meetings and manifestations, fearing the beginning of the revolution. In this industrial region near the German border there were strong Communist...

MARCH 11, 1919

MARCH 11

On March 11, 1919 the last group of volunteers sailed from the United States to the Polish Army in France. In total 22,395 of US-living Poles joined the group. Such high number of volunteers witnessed the special attitude of American Poles towards the...

MARCH 10, 1918

MARCH 10

According to the report, the Polish Army had the following staff in France as of March 10, 1918: 1st rifle division: 61 officers and 2564 soldiers; 2nd rifle division: 13 officers and 2309 soldiers; 3rd rifle division: 9 officers and 2389 soldiers....

MARCH 9, 1919

MARCH 9

On March 9, 1919 authorities of the minister of defense and the chief of the General Staff of the Polish Army were separated. This decision was caused by growth of the army and the necessity to control it in large territories. It caused significant...

MARCH 8, 1919

MARCH 8

On March 8, 1919 Prime Minister Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Commander in Chief of the Greater Poland Army Division General Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki and the Chief of Staff of the Greater Poland Army Captain Władysław Anders reached an agreement regarding...

MARCH 7, 1919

MARCH 7

On March 7, 1919, after negotiations with Prime Minister Ignacy Jan Paderewski, representatives of the intermediary commission: Brigade General Marie Joseph Raoul Léon Barthélemy and Colonel Willard left Warsaw. The task of the commission was to...

MARCH 6, 1919

MARCH 6

On March 6, 1919 the founding congress of the Communist International (Comintern), which was held in Moscow, adopted the resolution to continue the proletarian revolution in the whole Europe. According to the resolution, after defeating the...

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